公開セミナー Plant-pathogen interaction Sophien Kamoun & Mark Banfield

2016年01月25日 13:11

2月4日(木)にイギリスからSophien Kamoun教授とMark Banfield教授が来訪されます。
六篠会の後援で、4限(15:10-) B101 でセミナーをしていただけることになりました。
Sophien Kamoun教授は、植物ー微生物相互作用分野のオピニオンリーダーです。
また、Mark Banfield教授は、植物ー微生物相互作用に関与するタンパク質の立体構造をこれまで決定されてきました。

年度末のお忙しい時期ですが、興味のある方は、是非ご参加お願いします。
講演タイトルとabstractは、以下になります。

Seminar Title: Keeping up with the Plant Destroyers – The Two-Speed Genomes of Filamentous Plant Pathogens

Sophien Kamoun,
The Sainsbury Laboratory, Norwich Research Park, Norwich, United Kingdom.
https://www.KamounLab.net 

Abstract: 

Many species of fungi and oomycetes are plant pathogens of great economic importance. The genomes of these filamentous plant pathogens have revealed a remarkable diversity in genome size and architecture. Whereas the genomes of many parasites and bacterial symbionts have been reduced over time, the genomes of several lineages of filamentous plant pathogens have been shaped by repeat-driven expansions. In these lineages, the genes encoding proteins involved in host interactions are frequently polymorphic and reside within repeat-rich regions of the genome. This talk will review the properties of these adaptable genome regions and the mechanisms underlying their plasticity. I will also provide an update on our work on genome evolution in the lineage of the Irish potato famine organism Phytophthora infestans. Many plant pathogen species, including those in the P. infestans lineage, have evolved by host jumps followed by adaptation and specialization on distinct plant species. However, the extent to which host jumps and host specialization impact genome evolution remains largely unknown. The genomes of representative strains of four sister species of P. infestans revealed extremely uneven evolutionary rates across different parts of these pathogen genomes - a two-speed genome architecture. Genes in low density and repeat-rich regions show markedly higher rates of copy number variation, presence/absence polymorphisms, and positive selection. These loci are also highly enriched in genes induced in planta, such as disease effectors, implicating host adaptation in genome evolution. These results demonstrate that highly dynamic genome compartments enriched in non-coding sequences underpin rapid gene evolution following host jumps. 

Raffaele, S., and Kamoun, S. 2012. Genome evolution in filamentous plant pathogens: why bigger can be better. Nature Reviews Microbiology, 10:417-430.

Raffaele, S., Farrer, R.A., Cano, L.M., Studholme, D.J., MacLean, D., Thines, M., Jiang, R.H.Y., Zody, M.C., Kunjeti, S.G., Donofrio, N.M., Meyers, B.C., Nusbaum, C., and Kamoun, S. 2010. Genome evolution following host jumps in the Irish potato famine pathogen lineage. Science, 330:1540-1543. 

Dong, S., Stam, R., Cano, L.M., Song, J., Sklenar, J., Yoshida, K., Bozkurt, T.O., Oliva, R., Liu, Z., Tian, M., Win, J., Banfield, M.J., Jones, A.M.E., van der Hoorn, R.A.L., and Kamoun, S. 2014. Effector specialization in a lineage of the Irish potato famine pathogen. Science, 343:552-555.


Seminar Title: Molecular handshakes in plant/pathogen interactions

Mark Banfield, 
Dept. of Biological Chemistry, John Innes Centre, Norwich Research Park, Norwich, UK
https://banfield.jic.ac.uk/

Abstract: 

The ability of plant pathogens to cause disease and the ability of host plants to resist infection are frequently determined by interactions between proteins. In my Lab we study the biochemical and structural basis of how translocated plant pathogen effector proteins promote disease, and how plant cells recognise and respond to the presence of these molecules to deliver immunity. Ultimately we hope these studies will allow informed engineering of plant immunity in important crop species. In my seminar I will give a general overview of this work, with examples of published and unpublished work to highlight recent progress.

Maqbool A, Saitoh H, Franceschetti M, Stevenson CEM, Uemura A, Kanzaki H, Kamoun S, Terauchi R & Banfield MJ (2015) Structural basis of pathogen recognition by an integrated HMA domain in a plant NLR immune receptor. eLife 4:e08709.

King SR, McLellan H, Boevink PC, Armstrong MR, Bukharova T, Sukarta O, Win J, Kamoun S, Birch PR & Banfield MJ (2014) Phytophthora infestans RXLR effector PexRD2 interacts with host MAPKKK to suppress plant immune signalling. The Plant Cell. 26: 1345-59.

Sohn K, Hughes RK, Piquerez SJ, Jones JD & Banfield MJ (2012) Distinct regions of the Pseudomonas syringae coiled-coil effector AvrRps4 are required for activation of immunity. PNAS (USA). 109: 16371-16376.

Boutemy LS, King SR, Win J, Hughes RK, Clarke TA, Blumenschein TM, Kamoun S, Banfield MJ (2011) Structure of Phytophthora RXLR effector proteins: a conserved but adaptable fold underpins functional diversity. Journal of Biological Chemistry. 286: 35834-42.

世話人 土佐 幸雄
連絡先 吉田 健太郎 kentaro.yoshdia@port.kobe-u.ac.jp